What is the octet rule?
Intact muscle fibers (muscular tendon ligament shoulder rotator cuff) and Bizarre behavior of free radicals that destroy brain cells You understand (^^)? To do that Octet rules You need to know a chemical theory called the octet rule. There are many people who are unfamiliar, but it's not really difficult to hear the explanation~^^
Octet rules The (octet rule) is a chemical theory that states that each atom constituting a molecule is in the most stable state when 8 electrons enter the outermost shell. (2 in the first shell) Every atom has an atomic nucleus in the center and an electron outside. And the atomic number is assigned according to the number of electrons.
The octet rule states that when the electron follows the rule Stable state Is. In other words, the first shell is 2, the next shell is 8, and the next shell is also 8… Only in this way is it in a stable state.
Octet rule and properties of active oxygen: case of hydrogen atom
For example, a hydrogen atom with atomic number 1 has 1 electron. This is not stable according to the octet rules. And it needs 1 electron to stabilize. So, it stabilizes itself by taking one electron from the surrounding atoms.
In this case, the atomic nucleus of hydrogen has a charge of +1, but since there are two electrons, the charge of -2 becomes +1 – 2 = -1. (The nucleus has a charge of +1, and the electron has a charge of -1) So -1 is Hydrogen anion This is to be. This -1 hydrogen anion is stable because it has two electrons according to the octet rule, so it can exist as it is in nature. (Please note the'first two' in the picture above)
Octet rule and properties of active oxygen: Helium atom case
Next, helium, atomic number 2, has two electrons. Therefore, since it follows the octet rule, it can exist in nature stably as a pure atom. (Please note the'first two' in the picture above)
Octet rule and properties of active oxygen: examples of oxygen atoms
Next, the atomic number of oxygen is 8. According to the octet rule, 6 electrons must be discarded to become 2 electrons or 2 electrons must be obtained to make 10 electrons to stabilize.
In this case, it is easier to get 2 electrons than to discard 6 electrons. So 8 electrons Pure oxygen atom Is struck by trying to steal two scarce electrons from the surrounding atoms. These pure oxygen atoms themselves are said to be highly reactive Active oxygen Is called.
In this case, the atomic nucleus of oxygen has a charge of +8, but since there are 10 electrons, the charge of -10 becomes +8 – 10 = -2. (The nucleus has a charge of +1, the electron has a charge of -1) So -2 is Oxygen anion This is to be. This -divalent oxygen anion is stable because it has 10 electrons according to the octet rule, so it can exist as it is in nature. (Please note'next 2 + 8 = 10 items' in the picture above)
Above, we have examined the properties of active oxygen using the octet rule. To exist in nature, it must be in a stable state. Pure hydrogen atom and pure oxygen atom are not in a stable state according to the octet rule, so they take electrons from the surroundings. So it becomes a hydrogen anion and an oxygen anion. On the other hand, pure helium atoms are in a stable state according to the octet rule, so there is no need to take electrons from the surroundings. In conclusion, what exists in a stable state in nature Hydrogen anion Oxygen anion Pure helium atom You can see that it is.
Hydrogen atom and hydrogen anion, oxygen atom and oxygen anion. Only the number of electrons was different, but they were the same! In the next article, Negative ions Let's take a look at.
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